The hottest green packaging promotes the sustainab

2022-08-05
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Green packaging promotes the sustainable development of packaging industry

Abstract: This paper analyzes the development status and difficulties of green packaging in China, and puts forward that green packaging must be promoted from the aspects of environmental protection, circular economy, green market and technological progress to realize the sustainable development of packaging industry

key words: green packaging; Circular economy; Sustainable development

I. The Rise of green packaging

1 The emergence of green packaging

China began to produce and use green packaging materials and products from the mid-1980s, among which the most typical are pulp molding and honeycomb paperboard products. In just over a decade, green packaging enterprises can be seen everywhere except in a few remote mountainous areas. The national investment in this industry has exceeded 10billion yuan, with more than 100000 direct employees, an annual output of hundreds of thousands of tons of pulp packaging, a production capacity of more than 5billion paper tableware, more than 1000 equipment production lines, and a total industrial output value of more than 12billion yuan

2. Development status of green packaging

(1) rapid development. Due to the pressure of using green packaging for export commodities, the rise of domestic environmental protection undertakings and the support of the government, China's green packaging industry has developed rapidly. More and more environmentally friendly packaging materials are used, the market share is gradually rising, and the technical content is becoming higher and higher. Some products have reached the international advanced level and have a good market in the international market. The packaging machinery that produces green packaging products also has the momentum of booming production and marketing. However, at the same time, improper packaging such as excessive packaging and false packaging has gradually intensified, which has attracted the attention of the society, and some measures have been taken to make the packaging gradually embark on the road of standardization. In terms of packaging waste disposal, a few professional packaging waste recycling organizations have been established, and there is a trend of industrialization. For example, the Beijing disposable fast food box recycling station was established in September, 1997. Part of the recycled disposable fast food boxes are crushed and cleaned by Beijing Baolv plastic processing Co., Ltd. and then granulated to produce various injection molded products; In the other part, Beijing keyvia environmental protection technology center has produced a series of adhesives for construction, decoration, waterproof and antifreeze - "keyvia jiaoba" under the conditions of special additives and proprietary processes, which has achieved good economic and social benefits. In addition, the waste of resources and environmental pollution in the development of packaging industry, like other industrial environmental problems, have been paid attention to by the government and gradually controlled with the in-depth development of environmental protection in China. What is particularly gratifying is that the concept of green consumption has been accepted by Chinese consumers, and the market of green packaging industry has been expanding

(2) the development is one-sided. In the eyes of the packaging industry and the general public, green packaging is often one-sided understood as the greening of packaging products, mistakenly regarding packaging products made of environmentally degradable materials as green packaging, without asking whether the production of such packaging products causes environmental pollution and waste of resources, or the reuse of packaging products after use. Therefore, there are some wrong understandings of green packaging. For example, paper packaging is always regarded as green packaging, while plastic packaging is placed on the opposite side of green packaging, and even put forward the theory of polyethylene toxicity and the slogan of comprehensively implementing paper instead of plastic. As everyone knows, green packaging considers the impact of packaging on the environment from the whole life cycle of products. Paper packaging does not meet the requirements of green packaging if it is not recycled properly, while plastic packaging is advocated by green packaging if it achieves the goals of reduction and recycling. Plastic has the advantages that other packaging materials can not replace, and a comprehensive ban on plastic will cause greater packaging pollution. However, due to the limited forest resources in China, it is difficult to control the pollution of papermaking with some plastic packaging materials due to their edible and water-soluble characteristics. Therefore, it is neither realistic nor environmentally friendly to fully implement the policy of replacing plastic with paper. Moreover, even in developed countries that strictly promote green packaging, plastic is also the fastest-growing packaging material. The main measure to reduce the impact of plastic on the environment is to strengthen the recycling control rather than unilateral prohibition. Therefore, many important links of green packaging, such as the reduction of packaging materials, the recycling and recycling of packaging waste, have not received corresponding attention. The related green packaging industry is also very underdeveloped, especially the recycling industry of packaging waste is still very backward

(3) unbalanced development. First of all, different enterprises do not implement green packaging at the same time. The first enterprises to implement green packaging are all export-oriented enterprises. Influenced by the international market, such enterprises have an early understanding of green packaging, and quickly adjusted their strategies in Nike's transformation of more than 12.5 million pounds of factories from landfills and post consumer waste packaging in fiscal 2017. However, enterprises mainly in the domestic market have been slow to respond to green packaging, and only in recent years have they started to set foot in green packaging. Secondly, the development among regions is uneven. The green packaging in economically developed regions is developing rapidly, while the green packaging in economically backward central and western regions has not been paid enough attention and publicity, and the development is slow. In the treatment of packaging waste, the policies and laws of different regions are inconsistent, resulting in the transfer of packaging pollution to economically underdeveloped areas

II. Difficulties faced by green packaging

1 Economic factors restrict the development of green packaging

due to the adoption of advanced technology and the limited production scale of enterprises, green packaging products tend to cost more than traditional packaging products, so they do not have price advantages when competing with traditional packaging products, which directly leads to the disadvantages of green packaging products in market competition. Taking various new green tableware as an example, the cost of disposable equipment for pulp molded tableware is relatively high (with an annual output of 30million lunch boxes and an investment of more than 3million yuan). Most of them are produced intermittently, with a low yield. The cost of qualified products is at least 0.30 yuan/piece. In terms of cost, vegetable fiber (rice and wheat husk) tableware is dominant among all the alternative products of expanded polystyrene at present, but each box (without cover) is still more than 0.2 yuan. Photo/biodegradable polypropylene tableware is one of the largest substitutes for disposable expanded polystyrene tableware except pulp molded tableware. Its cost is about 0.20 yuan/piece. The cost of cardboard tableware is relatively high, and each (box) is more than 0.40 yuan. The cost of starch tableware is mostly more than 0.20 yuan, while the cost of disposable expanded polystyrene tableware equipped with printer is only 0.07 yuan. It is the price disadvantage that has become the bottleneck restricting the development of green tableware

2. Technology and talents restrict the development of green packaging. Accelerating technological innovation and developing new packaging materials, processes and products are the key to developing green packaging. The rapid development of modern science and technology and the increase of product technical content pose a threat to traditional packaging products. The international packaging industry has entered the era of turning off the main motor source mainly by developing green materials and replacing traditional materials. Green packaging does not return to the original, but takes high technology as its technical support. Due to the lack of investment and Research on the new green packaging technology, although China has the international leading level in some products, the overall technical level is still backward. In addition, there is a great shortage of talents in green packaging in China, especially the lack of management talents, which seriously restricts the development of green packaging

3. The lack of green consumption restricts the development of green packaging.

whether the packaging industry can embark on the green packaging road of sustainable development must depend on the regulation and guidance of the market. The direction, mode and performance pattern of market operation are all caused by the interaction of demand and supply. When green consumption becomes the mainstream direction of social consumption, green packaging will get the ultimate support of the market operation mechanism and become a necessity

China's green consumption started relatively late and is far from becoming people's consumption habit. Taking green tableware as an example, China began to control "white pollution" at the end of 1994, and began to research and develop alternative products. In recent years, the production technology has made a leap and is also leading in the world. At present, disposable green tableware mainly includes pulp molded tableware, photo/biodegradable polypropylene tableware, coated cardboard tableware and plant fiber tableware. At the beginning of 1999, the State Economic and Trade Commission issued Order No. 6, which listed disposable non degradable foamed plastic tableware in the catalogue of products that must be eliminated within a time limit nationwide by the end of 2000. All localities have issued relevant bans. However, it is still difficult to ban "white" and "green" in major, medium and small cities and rural market towns across the country. At present, the annual output of green tableware in China is about 4billion, of which 80% are exported to Japan, the United States, Singapore, etc., and another 20% are sold domestically to the rail and shipping system, which is difficult to promote in the fast food industry. Because the export demand exceeds the supply, and the domestic market demand (consumption) is seriously insufficient, many green packaging enterprises only care about the foreign market, ignore the domestic market or subsidize the domestic market with the surplus of the foreign market

III. vigorously develop green packaging and realize the sustainable development of packaging industry

1 Green packaging is the requirement of environmental protection and conforms to the world trend of environmental protection. At the 1992 United Nations Conference on environment and development, the concept of sustainable development was widely accepted and embodied in the five important documents issued at the conference, namely, the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, the statement of principles on forest issues, the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change and the Convention on biological diversity. Since then, environmental protection and sustainable development have become the consensus of all countries in the world. Green packaging is the best way to realize the sustainable development of packaging industry and the coordination between the development of packaging industry and environmental protection, so it has been widely supported and responded

2. Green packaging is the requirement of circular economy. After the 1990s, the development of knowledge economy and circular economy has become two major trends in the international community. Circular economy is essentially an ecological economy. It requires that economic activities be organized into a process of repeated circulation of "resources - products - renewable resources" according to the model of natural ecosystem, so that the whole system and the process of production and consumption basically produce no or only a small amount of waste, so as to fundamentally solve the long-term conflict between environment and development. Comprehensive utilization of resources, recycling, reduction and harmlessness of wastes are important principles and symbols of circular economy. Green packaging is the development mode of packaging industry that meets the requirements of circular economy, so it has been favored by the governments of developed countries. Germany, Japan and other countries even use legislation to promote the development of green packaging and circular economy, and have received good results. The development of circular economy is of special significance to China, a large developing country with relatively insufficient per capita resources and low resource utilization rate. In China, taking green packaging as the starting point, it is very practical and feasible to comprehensively transition to circular economy

3. The broad green market is the driving force to promote the development of green packaging

the total market value of the world's environmental protection industry is currently about 250billion US dollars, which is larger than the scale of the computer industry and the medical industry, and second only to the information technology industry. In fact, the market is still growing rapidly and has been on the rise. The vast green market contains unlimited business opportunities, and the huge economic benefits promote the market competition to develop in a more environmentally friendly direction. As far as packaging products are concerned, the market competition is no longer

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