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Western development and international experience

Introduction: China has implemented the western development strategy at the dawn of the 21st century, following the centralized investment in the southwest and northwest in the mid-1950s and the huge investment in the central and western regions again in the third line construction in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of the west is bound to be greatly promoted. Before 1949

following the concentrated investment in the southwest and northwest during the "first five year plan" in the mid-1950s and the huge investment in the central and western regions again during the "third line construction" in the 1960s and 1970s, China has implemented the western development strategy at the dawn of the 21st century. The development of the west is bound to be greatly promoted

before 1949, there were almost no railways in the West (Longhai Railway only connected to Xi'an, Yunnan only connected to foreign narrow gauge railways, Inner Mongolia railway only from Hohhot "Suiyuan" to Beiping), there were no grade roads, and more modern factories were relocated from the occupied areas along the sea during the anti Japanese war

of the 156 major projects during the first five year plan period, 124 were located in central and western provinces, accounting for 80% of the total investment, including 40 projects in Shaanxi and Gansu. Lanzhou Refinery, Lanzhou Chemical Plant, Lanzhou Petroleum machinery plant, Baotou Iron and steel company in Inner Mongolia and other large enterprises are the results of the "first five year plan". In order to cooperate with these major projects, the northwest artery longlan, Lanxin, Lanqing railways, Beijing Baotou and Baotou Lanzhou railways, as well as the Baoji Chengdu Railway, Chengdu Chongqing railway, Guizhou Guangxi railway, Guizhou Chongqing railway and Guizhou Kunming railway connecting the southwest have been launched to form a road. The central cities in the West have emerged and have begun to take shape in industrialization

the subsequent third tier construction has invested 200billion yuan into the central and western provinces, built more than 30 large-scale industrial bases, and directly promoted the emergence or expansion of a large number of medium-sized cities in western provinces: Chongqing, Mianyang, Panzhihua (from no man's land directly to medium-sized cities), Nanchong; Zunyi, Anshun, Duyun, Kaili, Guizhou; Xianyang, Weinan, Baoji, Hanzhong, Ankang, Shaanxi; Gansu Tianshui, etc. The railways supporting it include Jiaozhi railway, Xiangfan Chongqing railway, Chengdu Kunming railway and Hunan Guizhou railway. Although the construction of the third tier has basically formed an unrelated dual structure of "high-precision technology inside the wall and slash and burn cultivation outside the wall" in the west, it is an indisputable fact that large projects drive the improvement of industrial capacity and the progress of urbanization in the West. Its equipment, roads and talent reserves provide preparation for the current western development. Since the 1990s, coastal enterprises have achieved low-cost expansion through mergers and acquisitions in the West and quickly formed production capacity to occupy the market. Most of their target enterprises are state-owned enterprises established in these two periods; The talents used are basically the original technical workers and engineering technical management personnel of these enterprises. It is expected that many large projects in the new century will also drive the further development of the West

in the era of planned economy, the government's approach to promoting the development of the west, from vegetable markets, kindergartens, schools, police stations, hospitals, post offices and stores to factories, is now unsustainable. However, this does not mean that the government can adopt a "laissez faire" attitude towards the development of the West. In the development of poor areas, the allocation of market factors is ineffective, or counterproductive

if we take a laissez faire attitude on the grounds of market economy and allow market forces to act spontaneously, the regional gap between Western China and the coastal areas will never gradually narrow. The development of developed countries in Europe and the United States over the past century has fully proved this point. As countries pursuing market economy, European and American countries have taken measures to stimulate the development of their domestic underdeveloped regions, which is the biggest irony of the view that market economy should pursue "efficiency first". The market is not omnipotent

Italy is a typical example. There is a big gap between the developed north of Italy and the South dominated by traditional agricultural society. After decades of consistent strong intervention by various governments after the war (stimulated by the Italian government's South foundation "IL cassa peril Mezzogiorno" and the European Community regional development fund ERDF and regional policies), the economy of the South has improved considerably, but in terms of per capita income, labor productivity, employment rate, interest rate and population outflow The illiteracy rate, road density and the number of banks are still significantly inferior to the developed North. Not to mention the great efforts made by the Italian government to strengthen investment in the south, the European Community alone invested more than 30% of the European regional development fund allocated to all European Community countries in southern Italy from 1975 to 1985. It was not until January 1st, 1985 that the proportion was reduced to 21.62% to 28.79%. Even with such a huge amount of investment, the economic structure of southern Italy has been comprehensively improved, small enterprises have decreased and large enterprises have increased (employment has decreased and capital intensity has increased, which is different from Italy's traditional development mode dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises), but its productivity is still only about 70% of that of the north; The south is still strongly dependent on the North economically, and capital, technology and equipment need to be solved by the north. Taking into account the experience of Italy, if China does not have effective policy measures, some scholars optimistically predict that the regional gap will expand first and then automatically narrow over time, that is, how can the "inverted U" automatically appear and close the regional development gap

some people also believe that the western development of the United States can be used as a reference for China's western development. This is obviously the result of a lack of understanding of China's national conditions and American history. Apart from the fact that the west is backward and needs to be developed, the ways of western development in China and the United States are quite different

the great development of the western United States is due to two fundamental factors: the landless people in the East are attracted by the "homestead law" and gradually migrate from the west of the Appalachian Mountains to the wasteland east of the Rocky Mountains in the West. After reclaiming a certain area of land and cultivating it by themselves for several years, the land will be owned by them. Later, gold mines were discovered in Northern California, and people from the eastern coast took boats to bypass the west coast to mine for gold. On this basis, the U.S. government established an organic connection between the East and the west by granting land to the railway company. The railway company pays for the construction of the railway itself, and the land within a certain distance on both sides belongs to the railway company. The western development has promoted the flow of resources, which has promoted the railway construction and the development along the line. The two complement each other and promote the development of the western United States

with the intensification of population in the west, the United States has effectively occupied land to counter the territorial competition between Spain and France and the emerging United States on the North American continent

obviously, China cannot adopt the western development method of the United States. Because the western development of the United States was accomplished by depriving local Indians of their rights and interests; It was also completed by the U.S. government in a laissez faire manner. How can Western China emulate the experience of the United States? The population in Western China is quite dense (the northwest is oasis economy, where there is water source, the population is concentrated, and the density is no less than that of the coast; the southwest is concentrated in mountains, few plains, and lack of arable land). It is not ownerless land. How to adopt the policy of laissez faire

obviously, the experience of developing poor areas in Europe, South America and Asian countries is more worthy of reference

Brazil, a South American country, is close to China in area, with square kilometers, only about 1/10 smaller than China; The population is concentrated on the eastern coast, and its economic center is the Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Belo Horizonte triangle in the southeast, which is equivalent to the Shanghai Nanjing Hangzhou triangle in China. Its west and North are basically undeveloped Amazon rainforest areas with sparse population. In order to promote the development of the central and western regions and the north, Brazil adopted the way of moving its capital to Brasilia on the central plateau in 1964, so as to drive the factors to migrate westward and northward. The new capital is connected to Rio de Janeiro by railway and to Sao Paulo, the industrial center, through the "Castro blancu highway", to facilitate the exchange of personnel and materials in coastal and inland areas. In the 1990s, Argentina also took measures to move its capital from Buenos Aires to the coastal city of bedema on the desolate Patagonia plateau in the south, in order to pull the elements to the south

Brazil began its inland highway program in the 1970s to achieve national economic integration. The highways built include the trans Amazon highway, the North-South Saint talen kuyaba highway, the Belen Brasilia highway, and the Northeast interstate highway. In addition, in order to facilitate the transportation of products in agricultural areas, Brazil has also specially built roads nicknamed "wheat road", "coffee road" and "banana road", which lead from coastal ports to production areas

Brazil has taken institutionalized measures to promote the development of backward regions: according to the needs of the development of different regions, corresponding administrative agencies have been established: the Northeast Development Authority, the Amazon regional development authority, and the southern regional development authority to manage and coordinate the development projects and cross state projects in the region. At the same time, after the development project is approved by the parliament, their corresponding financial institutions will provide medium and long-term preferential loans: Northeast Development Bank, Amazon Regional Development Bank, Southern Regional Development Bank. On top of this, Brazil also has the National Economic Development Bank of the federal government, one of its businesses, regional development

the enlightenment for our country is that if we take institutionalized measures at the beginning of China's poverty alleviation and western development in the past ten years, and the funds and budgets are guaranteed by legislation and system, the effect should be better than now

the imbalance of regional development in Thailand has been prominent since the economic take-off in the 1970s. The transfer of underdeveloped areas to the central city of Bangkok has led to great social problems and the formation of slums on the scale of South American countries. Therefore, the Thai government has formulated some regional policies aimed at promoting the development of underdeveloped areas. In 1987, Thailand implemented a new investment law. Adopt the means of state intervention to promote the development of poverty-stricken areas

this investment law divides the country into three types of investment areas for the first time:

1. The capital region, including Bangkok and Beilan prefecture to the East

2. Four prefectures adjacent to the capital

3. Other regions (excluding Dapu Industrial Development Zone and lanchabang Industrial Development Zone invested by the state)

the corresponding investment preferences are progressive layer by layer: that is, the preference in the first zone is the least, and the preference in the third zone is the largest. However, the infrastructure of the third type of area is weak and the transportation cost is high, so the investment is still concentrated in the first and second types of areas. This is why the traffic in Bangkok is extremely crowded. In 1989, the Thai government adjusted the investment law to classify the four prefectures with high development level in the second category into the first category, and the 10 prefectures with better development in the third category into the second category; At the same time, the gap between concessions will be widened. For investment in the first zone, there is generally zero discount, and the discount is the largest in the third zone, which increases the attraction of remote areas to investors

Thailand's practice is borrowed from the investment law of Britain in 1938. At that time, the UK divided the areas to stimulate development into four types: the middle area (West and central England except Greater London and southeast England), the development area (North England and Wales), the special development area (Scotland) and Northern Ireland. For the same investment project, tax preferences vary in different regions. That is, the less developed regions are, the greater the attraction or compensation for the inconvenience of investors. The British government once stipulated

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